Aortic valve replacement surgery is one of quite common surgeries and most frequently done through the incision  made by cutting through the sternum.  The valve replacement is quite often done on congenital valve defects (defects you are born with). After the sternum has been opened, the patient is put on the heart-lung machine. This machine takes over the task of breathing for the patient and pumping their blood around while the surgeon replaces the heart valve. Heart valve surgery is an open heart surgery because the heart or the aorta must be opened.
Than the surgeon removes the patient’s diseased aortic valve and a mechanical or tissue valve he puts in its place. The valve can be of 2 different types – mechanical (made of plastic, carbon or metal) or biological valve made of animal tissues or donated human tissues.
Every 10-15 years the valve must be replaced or repaired.
Usually the risks related to this procedure estimated between 1-3%.
Timeframe for this surgery is 3-4 hours and aftercare 14-30 hours at intensive care unit. Full recovery can be accomplished in 3 months after the surgery.
Who needs the valve replacement surgery? patients who have stenosis or experiencing leaking or regurgitation in their heart valves.
Price for this surgery may vary from  12 000 $ to 200 000 $, depends on the country where it is performed.